BIOAVAILABLE K2-D3 5000*

THE D

$49.00

The D provide vitamin K2 as menaquinone-7 (MK-7), a highly bioavailable and bioactive form of K2. The D also features vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), the identical form in which vitamin D is derived in the body from cholesterol and synthesized by sunlight on the skin. Historical use and numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of vitamin K supplements for bone and cardiovascular health.

  • Supports Bone Health by Promoting Carboxylation of Bone Proteins.
  • Supports Cardiovascular Health by Affecting Arterial Calcium Deposits.
  • Supports Healthy Blood Clotting.

THE BENEFITS

CLINICAL APPLICATIONS 

SUPPORTS

Bone Health by Promoting Carboxylation of Bone Proteins.

SUPPORTS

Healthy Blood Clotting.

SUPPORTS

Cardiovascular Health by Affecting Arterial Calcium Deposits.

VITAMIN D

VITAMIN D (AS D3)

Although vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is made in the skin when 7-dehydrocholesterol reacts with sunlight, many things affect the degree to which this biosynthesis occurs, including time of day, seasons, location, smog/pollution, clothing, shade of skin (darker skin requires more sun), and sunscreen use. Low-cholesterol diets and certain cholesterol therapies can also affect vitamin D formation. By some estimates, one billion people worldwide have vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency.[18] The body needs vitamin D to absorb calcium, and the importance of vitamin D in skeletal health and bone density is well-established. Without adequate absorption, the body must take calcium from its stores in the skeleton, which weakens existing bone and prevents the formation of strong, new bone. Researchers suggest that vitamin D supplementation may decrease bone turnover and increase bone mineral density.[19] A pooled analysis evaluating 11 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials supported this analysis. It concluded that vitamin D supplementation (> 800 IU daily) was favorable in maintaining hip and nonvertebral bone integrity in individuals aged 65 and older.*[20] Although D2 and D3 are similar biochemically, one study demonstrated D3 to be approximately 87% more potent in raising and maintaining serum calcidiol (the body’s storage form) concentrations and in producing two- to threefold greater storage of vitamin D than did equimolar D2.*[21] † The cOC:ucOC ratio can be used as a determinant of vitamin K status.

MK-7 BIOAVAILABILITY INCREASES EXTRAHEPATIC TISSUE UTILIZATION

Schurgers et al conducted human studies to compare the in vivo properties of orally administered K1 and MK-7. The results supported better bioavailability and utilization of MK7. Expressed as AUC96, MK-7 demonstrated a six-fold better half-life, a seven- to eight-fold higher doseresponse level, and a three times higher carboxylated to uncarboxylated osteocalcin ratio (cOC:ucOC† ). Furthermore, on a molar basis, MK-7 is a three-to-four times more potent antidote for oral anticoagulation than is K1. Researchers note that, aside from sensitive individuals, “MK-7 supplements containing more than 50 mcg/d may interfere with oral anticoagulant treatment, whereas doses of at least 50 mcg are not likely to affect the INR value in a relevant way.”[2]

MK-7 BIOAVAILABILITY INCREASES
BONE BENEFITS

BONE BENEFITS

Among the dietary factors critical to bone health, vitamin K has emerged as a key player. Vitamin K is believed to be necessary for bone mineralization. Through carboxylation, vitamin K activates osteocalcin, the protein needed to bind calcium to the mineral matrix in bone.[6] Several studies have demonstrated the efficacy of MK-7 (e.g., doses of 45-90 mcg/d) to increase osteocalcin carboxylation and to increase the cOC:ucOC ratio. A high cOC:ucOC ratio is associated with bone health.[1,2,4] A recent in vitro study also showed an osteogenic effect of MK-7 administration on human mesenchymal cell differentiation.[6] In addition, the vitamin may protect bone integrity by reducing the synthesis of prostaglandin E2 or interleukin-6 by osteoclasts.[7] Animal and human studies have demonstrated a significant beneficial effect of MK-7 supplementation on bone health.[8-10] Vitamin K and vitamin D share some similar characteristics and are believed to act synergistically.*[11]

CARDIOVASCULAR AND OTHER HEALTH BENEFITS

Vitamin K benefits cardiovascular health by participating in the carboxylation of matrix GLA protein (MGP), a protein regarded to be the most potent inhibitor of arterial calcification. Researchers have demonstrated that supplementation with vitamin K reduces arterial calcium deposits[1,3,12] and that long-term intake of long-chain menaquinones is inversely correlated with calcium accumulation in arteries.*[5] Vitamin K has specific receptor binding sites that allow it to regulate gene activity.[13] Besides its gene-mediating effects upon critical proteins, the vitamin can also bind with the steroid and xenobiotic receptors and influence their expression.[14] In addition, vitamin K also demonstrates antioxidant activity[15]; reduces levels of certain markers, such as acute phase reactants (e.g., C-reactive protein)[16]; and participates in the induction of apoptosis.*[17]

CARDIOVASCULAR AND OTHER HEALTH BENEFITS

THE D
DOES NOT CONTAIN

Wheat and gluten.

Yeast.

Soy protein.

Dairy products.

Fish.

Shellfish.

Peanuts.

Nuts.

Egg.

Artificial colors.

Artificial sweeteners.

Artificial preservatives.

BIOAVAILABLE K2-D3 5000*

THE D

$49.00

The D provide vitamin K2 as menaquinone-7 (MK-7), a highly bioavailable and bioactive form of K2. The D also features vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), the identical form in which vitamin D is derived in the body from cholesterol and synthesized by sunlight on the skin. Historical use and numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of vitamin K supplements for bone and cardiovascular health.

  • Supports Bone Health by Promoting Carboxylation of Bone Proteins.
  • Supports Cardiovascular Health by Affecting Arterial Calcium Deposits.
  • Supports Healthy Blood Clotting.

THE BENEFITS

CLINICAL APPLICATIONS 

SUPPORTS

Bone Health by Promoting Carboxylation of Bone Proteins.

SUPPORTS

Healthy Blood Clotting.

SUPPORTS

Cardiovascular Health by Affecting Arterial Calcium Deposits.

VITAMIN D (AS D3)

Although vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is made in the skin when 7-dehydrocholesterol reacts with sunlight, many things affect the degree to which this biosynthesis occurs, including time of day, seasons, location, smog/pollution, clothing, shade of skin (darker skin requires more sun), and sunscreen use. Low-cholesterol diets and certain cholesterol therapies can also affect vitamin D formation. By some estimates, one billion people worldwide have vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency.[18] The body needs vitamin D to absorb calcium, and the importance of vitamin D in skeletal health and bone density is well-established. Without adequate absorption, the body must take calcium from its stores in the skeleton, which weakens existing bone and prevents the formation of strong, new bone. Researchers suggest that vitamin D supplementation may decrease bone turnover and increase bone mineral density.[19] A pooled analysis evaluating 11 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials supported this analysis. It concluded that vitamin D supplementation (> 800 IU daily) was favorable in maintaining hip and nonvertebral bone integrity in individuals aged 65 and older.*[20] Although D2 and D3 are similar biochemically, one study demonstrated D3 to be approximately 87% more potent in raising and maintaining serum calcidiol (the body’s storage form) concentrations and in producing two- to threefold greater storage of vitamin D than did equimolar D2.*[21] † The cOC:ucOC ratio can be used as a determinant of vitamin K status.

MK-7 BIOAVAILABILITY INCREASES EXTRAHEPATIC TISSUE UTILIZATION

Schurgers et al conducted human studies to compare the in vivo properties of orally administered K1 and MK-7. The results supported better bioavailability and utilization of MK7. Expressed as AUC96, MK-7 demonstrated a six-fold better half-life, a seven- to eight-fold higher doseresponse level, and a three times higher carboxylated to uncarboxylated osteocalcin ratio (cOC:ucOC† ). Furthermore, on a molar basis, MK-7 is a three-to-four times more potent antidote for oral anticoagulation than is K1. Researchers note that, aside from sensitive individuals, “MK-7 supplements containing more than 50 mcg/d may interfere with oral anticoagulant treatment, whereas doses of at least 50 mcg are not likely to affect the INR value in a relevant way.”[2]

BONE BENEFITS

Among the dietary factors critical to bone health, vitamin K has emerged as a key player. Vitamin K is believed to be necessary for bone mineralization. Through carboxylation, vitamin K activates osteocalcin, the protein needed to bind calcium to the mineral matrix in bone.[6] Several studies have demonstrated the efficacy of MK-7 (e.g., doses of 45-90 mcg/d) to increase osteocalcin carboxylation and to increase the cOC:ucOC ratio. A high cOC:ucOC ratio is associated with bone health.[1,2,4] A recent in vitro study also showed an osteogenic effect of MK-7 administration on human mesenchymal cell differentiation.[6] In addition, the vitamin may protect bone integrity by reducing the synthesis of prostaglandin E2 or interleukin-6 by osteoclasts.[7] Animal and human studies have demonstrated a significant beneficial effect of MK-7 supplementation on bone health.[8-10] Vitamin K and vitamin D share some similar characteristics and are believed to act synergistically.*[11]

CARDIOVASCULAR AND OTHER HEALTH BENEFITS

Vitamin K benefits cardiovascular health by participating in the carboxylation of matrix GLA protein (MGP), a protein regarded to be the most potent inhibitor of arterial calcification. Researchers have demonstrated that supplementation with vitamin K reduces arterial calcium deposits[1,3,12] and that long-term intake of long-chain menaquinones is inversely correlated with calcium accumulation in arteries.*[5] Vitamin K has specific receptor binding sites that allow it to regulate gene activity.[13] Besides its gene-mediating effects upon critical proteins, the vitamin can also bind with the steroid and xenobiotic receptors and influence their expression.[14] In addition, vitamin K also demonstrates antioxidant activity[15]; reduces levels of certain markers, such as acute phase reactants (e.g., C-reactive protein)[16]; and participates in the induction of apoptosis.*[17]

THE D,
DOES NOT CONTAIN

Wheat and gluten.

Yeast.

Soy protein.

Dairy products.

Fish.

Shellfish.

Peanuts.

Nuts.

Egg.

Artificial colors.

Artificial sweeteners.

Artificial preservatives.

References :

1. Brugè F, Bacchetti T, Principi F, et al. Olive oil supplemented with menaquinone-7 significantly affects osteocalcin carboxylation. Br J Nutr. 2011 Oct;106(7):1058-62. [PMID: 21736837]

2. Schurgers LJ, Teunissen KJ, Hamulyák K, et al. Vitamin K-containing dietary supplements: comparison of synthetic vitamin K1 and natto-derived menaquinone-7. Blood. 2007 Apr 15;109(8):3279-83. [PMID: 17158229]

3. Beulens JW, Bots ML, Atsma F, et al. High dietary menaquinone intake is associated with reduced coronary calcification. Atherosclerosis. 2009 Apr;203(2):489-93. [PMID: 18722618] 

5. Schurgers LJ, Vermeer C. Differential lipoprotein transport pathways of K-vitamins in healthy subjects. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002 Feb 15;1570(1):27-32. [PMID: 11960685]

6. Gigante A, Brugè F, Cecconi S, et al. Vitamin MK-7 enhances vitamin D3-induced osteogenesis in hMSCs: modulation of key effectors in mineralization and vascularization. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2012 Oct 29. [PMID: 23109511]

7. Weber P. Management of osteoporosis: is there a role for vitamin K? Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1997;67(5):350-56. [PMID: 9350477]

8. Yamaguchi M, Taguchi H, Gao YH, et al. Effect of vitamin K2 (menaquinone-7) in fermented soybean (natto) on bone loss in ovariectomized rats. J Bone Miner Metab. 1999;17(1):23-29. [PMID: 10084398]

10. Kanellakis S, Moschonis G, Tenta R, et al. Changes in parameters of bone metabolism in postmenopausal women following a 12-month intervention period using dairy products enriched with calcium, vitamin D, and phylloquinone (vitamin K(1)) or menaquinone-7 (vitamin K (2)): the Postmenopausal Health Study II. Calcif Tissue Int. 2012 Apr;90(4):251-62. [PMID: 2239252] 

11. Bolton-Smith C, McMurdo ME, Paterson CR, et al. Two-year randomized controlled trial of vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) and vitamin D3 plus calcium on the bone health of older women. J Bone Miner Res. 2007 Apr;22(4):509-19. [PMID: 17243866]

12. Geleijnse JM, Vermeer C, Grobbee DE, et al. Dietary intake of menaquinone is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: the Rotterdam Study. J Nutr. 2004 Nov;134(11):3100-05. [PMID: 15514282] 

13. Igarashi M, Yogiashi Y, Mihara M, et al. Vitamin K induces osteoblast differentiation through pregnane X receptor-mediated transcriptional control of the Msx2 gene. Mol Cell Biol. 2007 Nov;27(22):7947-54. [PMID: 17875939]

14. Azuma K, Inoue S. Vitamin K function mediated by activation of steroid and xenobiotic receptor [in Japanese]. Clin Calcium. 2009 Dec;19(12):1770-8. [PMID: 19949268]

15. Vervoort LM, Ronden JE, Thijssen HH. The potent antioxidant activity of the vitamin K cycle in microsomal lipid peroxidation. Biochem Pharmacol. 1997 Oct 15;54(8):871-76. [PMID: 9354587]

16. Shea MK, Booth SL, Massaro JM, et al. Vitamin K and vitamin D status: associations with inflammatory markers in the Framingham Offspring Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2008 Feb 1;167(3):313-20. [PMID: 18006902]

17. Sada E, Abe Y, Ohba R, et al. Vitamin K2 modulates differentiation and apoptosis of both myeloid and erythroid lineages. Eur J Haematol. 2010 Dec;85(6):538-48. [PMID: 20887388]

18. Tsiaras WG, Weinstock MA. Factors influencing vitamin d status. Acta Derm Venereol. 2011 Mar;91(2):115-24. [PMID: 21384086]

19. Lips P, van Schoor NM. The effect of vitamin D on bone and osteoporosis. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Aug;25(4):585-91. [PMID: 21872800]

20. Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Willett WC, Orav EJ, et al. A pooled analysis of vitamin D dose requirements for fracture prevention. N Engl J Med. 2012 Jul 5;367(1):40-49. [PMID: 22762317]

21. Heaney RP, Recker RR, Grote J, et al. Vitamin D3 is more potent than vitamin D2 in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Mar;96(3):E447-52. [PMID: 21177785]

References :

1. Brugè F, Bacchetti T, Principi F, et al. Olive oil supplemented with menaquinone-7 significantly affects osteocalcin carboxylation. Br J Nutr. 2011 Oct;106(7):1058-62. [PMID: 21736837]

2. Schurgers LJ, Teunissen KJ, Hamulyák K, et al. Vitamin K-containing dietary supplements: comparison of synthetic vitamin K1 and natto-derived menaquinone-7. Blood. 2007 Apr 15;109(8):3279-83. [PMID: 17158229]

3. Beulens JW, Bots ML, Atsma F, et al. High dietary menaquinone intake is associated with reduced coronary calcification. Atherosclerosis. 2009 Apr;203(2):489-93. [PMID: 18722618] 

5. Schurgers LJ, Vermeer C. Differential lipoprotein transport pathways of K-vitamins in healthy subjects. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002 Feb 15;1570(1):27-32. [PMID: 11960685]

6. Gigante A, Brugè F, Cecconi S, et al. Vitamin MK-7 enhances vitamin D3-induced osteogenesis in hMSCs: modulation of key effectors in mineralization and vascularization. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2012 Oct 29. [PMID: 23109511]

7. Weber P. Management of osteoporosis: is there a role for vitamin K? Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1997;67(5):350-56. [PMID: 9350477]

8. Yamaguchi M, Taguchi H, Gao YH, et al. Effect of vitamin K2 (menaquinone-7) in fermented soybean (natto) on bone loss in ovariectomized rats. J Bone Miner Metab. 1999;17(1):23-29. [PMID: 10084398]

10. Kanellakis S, Moschonis G, Tenta R, et al. Changes in parameters of bone metabolism in postmenopausal women following a 12-month intervention period using dairy products enriched with calcium, vitamin D, and phylloquinone (vitamin K(1)) or menaquinone-7 (vitamin K (2)): the Postmenopausal Health Study II. Calcif Tissue Int. 2012 Apr;90(4):251-62. [PMID: 2239252] 

11. Bolton-Smith C, McMurdo ME, Paterson CR, et al. Two-year randomized controlled trial of vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) and vitamin D3 plus calcium on the bone health of older women. J Bone Miner Res. 2007 Apr;22(4):509-19. [PMID: 17243866]

12. Geleijnse JM, Vermeer C, Grobbee DE, et al. Dietary intake of menaquinone is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: the Rotterdam Study. J Nutr. 2004 Nov;134(11):3100-05. [PMID: 15514282] 

13. Igarashi M, Yogiashi Y, Mihara M, et al. Vitamin K induces osteoblast differentiation through pregnane X receptor-mediated transcriptional control of the Msx2 gene. Mol Cell Biol. 2007 Nov;27(22):7947-54. [PMID: 17875939]

14. Azuma K, Inoue S. Vitamin K function mediated by activation of steroid and xenobiotic receptor [in Japanese]. Clin Calcium. 2009 Dec;19(12):1770-8. [PMID: 19949268]

15. Vervoort LM, Ronden JE, Thijssen HH. The potent antioxidant activity of the vitamin K cycle in microsomal lipid peroxidation. Biochem Pharmacol. 1997 Oct 15;54(8):871-76. [PMID: 9354587]

16. Shea MK, Booth SL, Massaro JM, et al. Vitamin K and vitamin D status: associations with inflammatory markers in the Framingham Offspring Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2008 Feb 1;167(3):313-20. [PMID: 18006902]

17. Sada E, Abe Y, Ohba R, et al. Vitamin K2 modulates differentiation and apoptosis of both myeloid and erythroid lineages. Eur J Haematol. 2010 Dec;85(6):538-48. [PMID: 20887388]

18. Tsiaras WG, Weinstock MA. Factors influencing vitamin d status. Acta Derm Venereol. 2011 Mar;91(2):115-24. [PMID: 21384086]

19. Lips P, van Schoor NM. The effect of vitamin D on bone and osteoporosis. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Aug;25(4):585-91. [PMID: 21872800]

20. Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Willett WC, Orav EJ, et al. A pooled analysis of vitamin D dose requirements for fracture prevention. N Engl J Med. 2012 Jul 5;367(1):40-49. [PMID: 22762317]

21. Heaney RP, Recker RR, Grote J, et al. Vitamin D3 is more potent than vitamin D2 in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Mar;96(3):E447-52. [PMID: 21177785]

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose treat cure or prevent any disease.